CBD - Convention on Biodiversity

CBD - Convention on Biodiversity

  • Convention = International Agreement
  • Convention on Biodiversity is the brainchild of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • Headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
  • It works under UNEP (United Nations Environment  Programme).



Convention on Biodiversity wants three things and it leads to three more things.


Wants To

Leads To


Protect biodiversity

COP meetings, Aichi Targets.


Safe use of bio-technology

Cartagena Biosafety Protocol


Stop unfair use of Genetic resources

Nagoya Genetic Resources Protocol


CBD accepts/wants following things:

  1. Biological diversity is a common concern of humankind.
  2. States have sovereign rights over their own biological resources. But at the same time, States are responsible for conserving their biological diversity. Therefore, States are required to create National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAP).
  3. Sustainable use of biological diversity is important for food security, health and other needs of the public.
  4. Biological diversity is being significantly reduced by certain human activities.
  5. But it shall protect biodiversity via in-situ and ex-situ methods.
  6. Recognizes vital role of women and NGOs in protecting biodiversity.
  7. It rich members (developed countries) will give money and technology to the middle class and poor members (developing nations and Least developed countries).
  8. Shall give special attention to the least developed countries (D.C.) and small island States, because they’re more vulnerable.
  9. Shall also give special attention to developing countries, especially those with arid and semi- arid zones, coastal and mountainous areas.
  10. Create public awareness, sensitization, knowledge - sharing and other diplomatic-legal consulting.



  • To fund various projects, activities under CBD needs truckload of cash.
  • This cash comes through an organization named as Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  • GEF gets money from world bank, UN, various (rich) nations and trust organization, companies
  • GEF gives that money to finance many environment related activies including:
  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)



  • Convention = international
  • CBD doesn’t have “members”. It has “parties”: rich parties on one side, middle class and poor parties on the other.
  • These parties meet at regular interval. These meetings are called Conference of Parties (COP).
  • In these Meetings, the leaders, delegates consume desi-liquor (to provide sustainable livelihood to local communities) and evaluate their past achievements; lay down future course of action, money and technology transfer to third world.
  • Each party has one vote. Decision taken by majority vote. These meetings led to Cartagena Biosafety Protocol (2000).
  • 10th Such meeting was held at Nagoya, Japan (2010). It led to Nagoya Protocol on Genetic Resources + Aichi Targets.
  • 11th such meeting (COP-11) was held in Hyderabad, India in 2012.
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